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Home > Health Library > Serum Osmolality Test
A serum osmolality test measures the amount of chemicals dissolved in the liquid part (serum) of the blood. Chemicals that affect serum osmolality include sodium, chloride, bicarbonate, proteins, and sugar (glucose).
This test is done on a blood sample taken from a vein.
A substance called antidiuretic hormone (ADH) partly controls serum osmolality. Water constantly leaves your body as you breathe, sweat, and urinate. If you do not drink enough water, the concentration of chemicals in your blood (serum osmolality) increases. When serum osmolality increases, your body releases ADH. This keeps water from leaving in the urine, and it increases the amount of water in the blood. The ADH helps restore serum osmolality to normal levels.
If you drink too much water, the concentration of chemicals in your blood decreases. When serum osmolality decreases, your body stops releasing ADH. This increases the amount of water in your urine. It keeps too much water from building up in your body (overhydration).
This test may be done to:
In general, there's nothing you have to do before this test, unless your doctor tells you to.
A health professional uses a needle to take a blood sample, usually from the arm.
When a blood sample is taken, you may feel nothing at all from the needle. Or you might feel a quick sting or pinch.
There is very little chance of having a problem from this test. When a blood sample is taken, a small bruise may form at the site.
Each lab has a different range for what's normal. Your lab report should show the range that your lab uses for each test. The normal range is just a guide. Your doctor will also look at your results based on your age, health, and other factors. A value that isn't in the normal range may still be normal for you.
High levels may be caused by:
Low levels may be caused by:
Current as of:
December 2, 2020
Author: Healthwise StaffMedical Review: E. Gregory Thompson MD - Internal MedicineKathleen Romito MD - Family MedicineAlan C. Dalkin MD - Endocrinology
Current as of: December 2, 2020
Author: Healthwise Staff
Medical Review:E. Gregory Thompson MD - Internal Medicine & Kathleen Romito MD - Family Medicine & Alan C. Dalkin MD - Endocrinology
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